<<PART III: Virtual Manipulatives: their potential in developing mathematical conceptual understanding


Three key recommendations are as follows:

1. The formation of a school-based research group to build a bank of resources.

Led by a curriculum coordinator, this group should explore the range of virtual manipulatives currently available and build a levelled library of tools they consider most useful for their cohort. Bookmarking these sites or preloading apps onto devices will encourage use. Physical manipulatives should remain an integral part of this library as they remain useful, both in themselves and as a point of comparison

2. The provision of timely and well-structured staff professional development

Teachers are the gatekeepers and providers of educational materials for their students. Helping teachers become aware of what and how manipulatives are best implemented is often a slow process; one that often involves the re-examination of long-held beliefs which can be challenging for all involved. It is however, one that can ultimately result in greater conceptual understanding and learning outcomes for students. Training student leaders can also be helpful and benefit teachers and students alike.

3. A commitment to mathematical dialogue in the classroom

Talking about mathematics is key to understanding it. Digital technologies can sometimes be side-lined or used as a babysitter and when using virtual manipulatives students may not be involved in the discussions they need to build connections and expose misconceptions. Shared learning experiences where ideas are shared, challenged and reflected on, are vital.

After analysing the available literature, it appears that virtual manipulatives may well have potential to develop mathematical conceptual understandings but it is relatively early days for these tools, and further research is needed before any firm affordances can be established.

However, in light of the ever-increasing role digital technologies are playing in education and the associated curricular expectations, schools need to make informed decisions now. It therefore make sense to revisit the use of physical manipulatives and envision how virtual manipulatives may aid the development of conceptual development.


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